All information on soils were from the Land Resource Study 20 series of books
(Volumes 1 to 5), published by the Land Resources Division, Ministry of Overseas
Development , UK.
Binalik Association occurs on alluvium mainly:
the vicinity of the Maliau, Bidu Bidu, Tawai and Silam mountain ranges,
Pulau Banggi, and
the eastern edge of Marudu Bay.
association is formed predominantly on alluvial fans, which are associated with
streams emerging from the mountains which are exposed of ultrabasic rocks. It is
also formed on narrow floodplains and on terraces. The alluvium, which is
largely derived from ultrabasic rocks, is fine or medium in texture and often
contains stones or concretions.