Note: All information on soils were from the Land Resource Study 20 series of books (Volumes 1 to 5), published by the Land Resources Division, Ministry of Overseas Development , UK.


The Karamuak Association occurs:

  • on valley floors and terraces along the Sungai Karamuak,

  • in the Mananam Plain,

  • in the headwaters of the Bole and Segama rivers, and

  • along Sungai Kadamaian.


Parent materials comprise fine- to coarse-textured, sometimes stony, alluvium, derived from mixed sources, but including basic igneous rocks.


Most of the land  has been cleared for shifting cultivation and is either under cultivation  or more commonly at some stage of secondary regrowth.

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CAIMS designed by Sabah Forestry Department. Copyright 2002, 2003, 2004 & 2005. All rights reserved.