All information on soils were from the Land Resource Study 20 series of books
(Volumes 1 to 5), published by the Land Resources Division, Ministry of Overseas
Development , UK.
Karamuak Association occurs:
valley floors and terraces along the Sungai Karamuak,
the Mananam Plain,
the headwaters of the Bole and Segama rivers, and
materials comprise fine- to coarse-textured, sometimes stony, alluvium, derived
from mixed sources, but including basic igneous rocks.
of the land has been cleared for shifting cultivation and is either under
cultivation or more commonly at some stage of secondary regrowth.