All information on soils were from the Land Resource Study 20 series of books
(Volumes 1 to 5), published by the Land Resources Division, Ministry of Overseas
Development , UK.
Bang Association occurs in the Lahad Datu and Tawau Districts. In the Lahad Datu
District, it occurs in the headwaters of the Sungai Segama and its tributaries.
In the Tawau District, in occurs sporadically from the Kalabakan catchment in
the west, across the Semporna Peninsula to Pulau Timbun Mata in the east.
occurs on very high hills with amplitudes up to 300 m, slopes are generally
between 15° and 25°, but many are steeper.
materials consist largely of slump deposits in which sandstone and mudstone are
dominant, chert, tuffaceous rock, limestone and intermediate, basic and
ultrabasic igneous rocks also occur.