Note: All information on soils were from the Land Resource Study 20 series of books (Volumes 1 to 5), published by the Land Resources Division, Ministry of Overseas Development , UK.


The Bang Association occurs in the Lahad Datu and Tawau Districts. In the Lahad Datu District, it occurs in the headwaters of the Sungai Segama and its tributaries. In the Tawau District, in occurs sporadically from the Kalabakan catchment in the west, across the Semporna Peninsula to Pulau Timbun Mata in the east.


It occurs on very high hills with amplitudes up to 300 m, slopes are generally between 15 and 25, but many are steeper.


Parent materials consist largely of slump deposits in which sandstone and mudstone are dominant, chert, tuffaceous rock, limestone and intermediate, basic and ultrabasic igneous rocks also occur.


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