All information on soils were from the Land Resource Study 20 series of books
(Volumes 1 to 5), published by the Land Resources Division, Ministry of Overseas
Development , UK.
Lokan Association is the second most extensive association. It occurs throughout Sabah, with major developments:
the foothills of the Crocker Range on the west and northeast coasts,
the interior plains,
the catchment area of the Sungai Labuk above Telupid,
the Mananam Plain and the Maliau Basin,
the east of the Pensiangan District, and
the Lokan Peneplain.
occurs on very high hills with amplitudes up to 300 m and slopes often greater
than 25°. Hill crests are often very narrow. The hills are formed of interbedded
sandstone and mudstone.
of the most prominent landforms found within the general lowland area occur in
this association. The basic unit is a ridge usually with narrow seep to very
steep middle and lower slopes; sheer cliff faces also occur, landslides are
common and lower slopes are invariably strewn with boulders. These ridges occur
in a variety of combinations. Bukit Bilit is an example of a ridge occurring in
most extensive occurrence is in the form of a deeply dissected peneplain
referred to as the Lokan Peneplain. this comprises of strongly dissected land
with steep slopes , narrow valley bottoms and crests, the latter being
concordant at heights of 90-120 m over much of the area rising to about 300 m in
whole association is under lowland dipterocarp forest.