Note: All information on soils were from the Land Resource Study 20 series of books (Volumes 1 to 5), published by the Land Resources Division, Ministry of Overseas Development , UK.


The Bidu Bidu Association is the only association mapped on ultrabasic igneous rocks. The Tawai and Binalik Associations, which also have soils formed on parent materials derived from ultrabasic igneous rocks, have been described elsewhere in this web.


Bidu Bidu Association (41)

The Bidu Bidu Association occurs on mountains and hills of ultrabasic igneous rocks. Mountains include:

  • those to the east and west of Mt Kinabalu,

  • Gunung Tambuyukon,

  • in the Meliau Range,

  • the Bidu Bidu Hills,

  • the Tawai Range,

  • Gunung Rara,

  • Gunung Silam,

  • various peaks in the headwaters of the Segama (for e.g. Mt Danum and Mt. Nicola), and on the watershed of the Segama and the Kinabatangan.


The association also includes areas of low hills notably in the lower Labuk valley and sporadically in the Kinabatangan lowlands.